The Synoymic Paradigm of the Turkish Judicial System during the Bulgarian Period

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Khalisa Khatipovna Kuzmina
Gulshat Raisovna Galiullina
Gulfiya Kamilovna Khadieva
Zilya Munirovna Kajumova


In the past, the Turkish judicial system was only set up in such a way that all votes were issued in favor of the ruling party and its supporters, so that the judicial system could easily prosecute an independent party in the executive branch without citing any legal reason, even to fire him, but after the reforms, more positive and favorable angles followed, so that the activities of the parties are more secure. The judicial system of Turkey is very similar to the judicial system of some European countries. For example, most of the legal articles in Turkey's civil law are derived from Swiss civil law, and in the law of obligations, it is very similar to its French counterpart, while most of the laws of criminal law and criminal affairs are adopted by adapting the laws of Italy. Have. Nevertheless, it is necessary to examine Turkish legal literature in Bulgarian. The research paper presents the results of the analysis of the synonymic paradigm of the vocabulary of the written literature monument of the XIIIth century “Kyssa-i Jusuf” by Kul Gali. On the basis of a complex functional and semantic analysis of the synonymic units of the lexis of the above-mentioned literary work, the authors have made an attempt to reconstruct the history of the evolution of the synonymic paradigm of the Turkic literary language of the XIIIth century. That period is one of the most difficult and least explored ones in the history of the Turkic-Tatar literary language evolving, for there are no other authentic written sources of the Volga region literary language of the pre-Mongolian period apart from the poem “Kyssa-i Jusuf”. The research paper introduces new factual material for scientific use and offers the synonyms classification according to genetic character. Such a perspective can generate interest from the part of scholars in Turkology, comparative-historical philology, Tatarology, and be used in researches involving historical lexicology of the Turkic languages, as well as in elaboration of textbooks and schoolbooks in history of the Tatar language.

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Kuzmina, K. K. ., Galiullina, G. R. ., Khadieva, G. K. ., & Kajumova, Z. M. . (2022). The Synoymic Paradigm of the Turkish Judicial System during the Bulgarian Period. BiLD Law Journal, 7(3s), 200–203. Retrieved from

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